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Let's do it tomorrow. Or I am too sleepy for this one. Or this one will take too much time. If you find yourself in a loop and constantly rescheduling the same topic , or spending time rescheduling a number of topics , you are hurting the efficiency of learning!
This is the time that could be spent on more productive steps. If you do not want incremental reading to become a waste of time, you must always take some action when you see a topic.
In other words, either make tiny inroads into the text, or mark it clearly as low priority or to-be-done later.
Consider also Delete or Done! Another facet of the same problem is taking too many actions on a single piece of information.
It is highly inefficient to work on colors, fonts, pictures, priorities, etc. All those actions can be spread over time. Naturally, setting the right priority is one of the most important steps.
Perhaps a piece of information is not important enough to ever squeeze through your crowded learning. If so, you will save tons of time on not doing colors and styles.
Here also you should remember: Each time you review a piece of information, you are allowed to do an edit, font change, template change, category change, etc.
However, unless you can do all your actions in a single burst of machine gun keyboard strikes, or unless some actions are associated with learning new things, you should rather limit your actions to a single step per single repetition.
One memory, one action rule demands that every operation in incremental learning should leave a trace in your memory. It also says that one operation on a piece of data is better than two operations at the same time.
The following item may look like a violation of the 20 rules:. However, the 20 rules were written in for classical SuperMemo. Incremental learning is incremental across the spectrum of rules and principles.
In particular, formulating items and building understanding are incremental too. According to the one memory, one action principle, the presented item will assume its final shape some time in the undefined future or never, if its priority is not high enough.
It must be processed incrementally due to the following factors:. The 20 rules say "' Do not memorize until you understand ", however, understanding is also an incremental process.
Converting this item to plain " What eicosanoids attract white blood cells? If this is notthe case, carrying the context in the shape of this complex item is a form of transitional stage between a topic and an item.
The item still asks the question vital for active recall. However, it also makes sure that full context is provided until the rest of the knowledge structure is firmly established in student's mind.
In incremental reading, the order of reading is often chaotic, the understanding is incremental, and the effort to build a solid knowledge structure is gradual too.
In addition to the incremental buildup of comprehension, extensive edits of items are costly esp. In fact, one of the main advantages of incremental reading is the minimum need for typing.
This is why we use electronic sources in the first place instead of just books that offer no disadvantage when entire items are typed in anyway.
This is why an important efficiency principle in incremental learning is to minimize edits by complying with the one memory, one action principle.
Let us see how the presented item might evolve in successive repetitions. Note that all edit steps my proceed only with solidification of related knowledge i.
The execution of those steps will also be somewhat dependent on item priority. High priority items will receive more exposure, more processing and will demand better formulation quality.
Lists and sets are difficult to remember. It is hard to remember the whole set of countries that belong to the European Union. When learning lists, you should rather decompose the problem into smaller subproblems.
Let us consider an example in which you want to memorize the entire sequence of letters in the alphabet.
It won't be very effective if you use the following item:. You will notice that you frequently stumble on parts of the sequence and need to stop repetitions just to exercise the entire sequence in the traditional way like we all learn poems by rote.
After weeks of repetitions, you may take on an extra task of recalling the whole sequence after each repetition of these simplified items.
This will make sure you can recite the entire alphabet quickly. You will also frequently rehearse that parts of the sequence that are harder for your memory e.
V, W, X, Y, Z as opposed to those that are much simpler e. You may develop a good methodology for memorizing lists in SuperMemo.
However, you may later discover that the memorized lists are not very useful in real life, or worse, your memory may fail you when you undergo a baptism of fire.
You already know that list should not form an answer to a question. You can use cloze deletion to learn lists using multiple items.
It is important to know that Item 1 above may make you fail to answer with A to the question C if you only learn to answer Item 1 by understanding the association of B with A.
In such cases, you will need even more work by formulating items: Although you will get six items instead of one, you knowledge is likely to be more solid and you may actually spend less time on repetitions of those multiple items than on repetitions of the conglomerate A-B-C item.
In a majority of cases, we do not need to learn lists at all. The perception that a list is worth memorizing is often a reflection of a bad habit we bring from school where lists are a frequent feature at exams.
A user of SuperMemo asked: I am really not sure where to mark the boundaries of extracts and how to use cloze deletion?
Mental illness is becoming an increasing problem for two reasons. First, increases in life expectancy have brought increased numbers of certain chronic mental illnesses.
For example, because more people are living into old age, more people are suffering from dementia. Second, a number of studies provide evidence that rates of depression are rising throughout the world.
This fragment is difficult to process because it is an enumeration a list that forms one large logical structure. However, for understanding the subject, you do not really need to remember how many factors affect mental illness.
You primarily need to remember the relationship between the cause and the effect. If you ignore the enumeration, you can simply produce the following topics that will each be easy to process further:.
If you believe that you cannot live without the enumeration, you can first extract the facts listed above, and then simplify the enumeration by deleting all superfluous information:.
You do not want to memorize the whole list of fruits, esp. There is no definite or complete list of fruits that would make a good memorization target.
All you really want to know is that an apple is a fruit, or an orange is a fruit, etc. The list itself is rather useless. You can keep it as a reference in SuperMemo, but memorizing it would be a waste of time.
You can use Decompose to quickly achieve your learning goals in reference to fruits. Start from modifying the topic:. Convert that cloze to a version that can easily be decomposed by placing list members into braces using slashes as separators:.
You can now treat the question field with Reading: Decompose on the component menu to get a series of clozes like these:.
After all, the article can also be read incrementally in a linear sequence. This is a case a multi-criterial optimization where many factors must be taken into account and the ultimate decision will depend on your own preferences.
SuperMemo should conglomerate all your knowledge and your learning material. Ideally, you should just keep a single body of knowledge in a single collection.
That main collection should be enriched daily by newimports of articles and multimedia from various sources. Keeping your knowledge in a single collection is vital for subset review, searching for knowledge and references, searching for pictures, statistics, progress monitoring, import defaults, etc.
SuperMemo provides a rich set of tools for handling disparate areas of knowledge in a single continuous learning process.
However, in certain situations, you may create separate collections for various purposes. There are two main reasons for keeping collections separate:.
Here are some examples of situations that justify creating collections separate from your main body of knowledge:.
The figure below roughly illustrates the flow of knowledge in time depending on knowledge difficulty:. PDF is a proprietary format.
SuperMemo does not support PDF natively. There are 4 approaches that are most often used to process PDF incrementally.
You will need to see which one is best for your particular material. It may happen that you will need to resort to mixed strategies and use different approaches to different texts.
The 4 options are:. Conversion to HTML is most convenient and least expensive. Page snapshots are a fast way to read and import pages that are difficult to convert or are read only e.
Copy and paste approach is best for articles that can easily be selected in their entirety and which do not contain too many pictures.
Finally, the incremental approach is most natural for SuperMemo, however, instead of using read-points, the student needs to make a note where he or she stopped reading the text.
For more solutions, see: However, all converters have their limitations. This is why you need to check a few converters and see which one is best at processing your type of learning material.
Here is a short list of converters as compiled at SuperMemoPedia:. If you are not sure which one to choose, you might use this one: PDF online it keeps a limit of 2 MB on the size of files to convert.
If you own MS Word, you can give it a try, however, using converters or other methods will probably work better. Some users swear by OCR.
You can convert PDF to pictures and employ the tools of visual learning. This method of reading PDF is analogous to incremental reading of paper materials.
See more at SuperMemoPedia: PDF and Visual Learning. Usually, Adobe Reader will not let you do multi-page selections that would paste to SuperMemo fast and nicely.
You may even get annoyed with your attempts to copy a multi-column portion of a single page. You will get one column selected, middle of the second, and the ending of the third.
Other double-column texts will paste as a mix of both columns per line. Sometimes pasting multi-column texts is not possible.
That can take ages. Similarly, pictures do not copy as part of HTML. Tables are usually best processed in the form of pictures as they usually import poorly to HTML.
Some PDF documents do not even allow of selecting texts. In those cases you will need to resort to PDF visual learning too.
Sometimes you may just give up and read the article straight without bothering to do it incrementally, or look for alternative texts, or just give up reading altogether.
You can also read the article using traditional methods, and copy to SuperMemo only the portions that you would normally extract within SuperMemo.
After pasting text from Adobe Reader to SuperMemo, it will often be jagged, disrupted, wrongly formatted, etc. Converting short passages to plain text often dramatically improves readability.
PDF Copy and Paste. If you have many notes taken from paper journals, or you must read paper articles, you can use a few methods to employ incremental reading in that process.
Working with paper will never be as effective as working with electronic material. However, you can still triple your performance with the benefits of incremental learning.
In incremental learning, you learn fast, you acquire massive loads of knowledge, retain memories for life, remember almost all that you have learned, understand things better, develop harmoniously in all directions, enhance your creativity, and all that while having incredible fun!
Incremental learning offers a possibility of studying a huge number of subjects in parallel. In traditional reading, very often, one book or academic subject must be completed before studying another.
With incremental learning, there is virtually no limit on how many subjects you can study at the same time. The volume of processed knowledge can be staggering.
Only the availability of time and your memory capacity will keep massive learning in check. As incremental learning is based on spaced repetition , all memories that you form while learning will be indefinitely protected from forgetting.
General principles of SuperMemo. Only SuperMemo makes it possible to implement incremental reading. Incremental reading requires continual retention of knowledge.
Depending on the volume of knowledge flow in the program, the interval between reading individual portions of the same article may extend from days to months and even years.
SuperMemo repetition spacing provides the foundation of incremental reading, which is based on stable memory traces that would not fade between the bursts of reading.
In incremental learning, the review of the learning material is governed by a spaced repetition algorithm known as the SuperMemo method.
That fraction can be increased at the cost of higher cost in time i. Retention can also be reduced to increase the overall speed of learning.
To save time, low priority material may be reviewed less frequently, resulting in lesser retention. One of the limiting factors in acquiring new knowledge is the barrier of understanding.
Building knowledge in your brain is like assembling a jigsaw puzzle. Some pieces cannot be placed in the puzzle before the others.
Some pieces capitalize on others. There is no point in memorizing facts about Higgs boson before you learn what the standard model is and that, in turn, should follow the general understanding of particle physics which itself requires some ABC of physics.
In incremental reading, if you encounter texts related to Higgs boson you can manually delay it until the time you hope your Physics ABC will provide the ground for understanding the boson.
In traditional reading, you would just waste your time on reviewing Higgs boson material just because you would not have tools to effectively reschedule and reprioritize your reading in the middle of a longer article.
Traditionally, your decision to skip the material would provide no definite way of coming back to the skipped material in the future. With incremental reading, you waste no time on reading material you do not understand.
You can safely skip portions of material and return to them in the future. You become the master of the conscious knowledge building process.
You can gradually build understanding of complex phenomena. All written materials, depending on the reader's knowledge, pose a degree of difficulty in accurately interpreting their meaning.
This is particularly visible in highly specialist scientific papers that use a sophisticated symbol-rich language. A symbol-rich language is a language that gains conciseness by the use of highly specialist vocabulary and notational conventions.
For an average reader, symbol-rich language may exponentially raise the bar of lexical competence i. Incremental reading makes it possible to delay the processing of those articles, paragraphs or sentences that require prior knowledge of concepts that are not known at the moment of reading.
The processing of the learning material will only take place then when the new information begins to slot in comfortably in the fabric of the reader's knowledge.
You can then gradually proceed through this material and gradually build the understanding from basic or simple facts towards details or more complex components of knowledge.
You will build understanding, resolve contradictions and ultimately creatively discover new truths about the learned material.
Over time, you will optimize the structure of knowledge in your mind in terms of coherence, integrity, and representation. Incremental reading will make it possible to tackle the hardest material that might otherwise seem unreadable.
Instead of focusing on a single subject of study, the student will review dozens of subject areas in a single day.
The growth of the knowledge tree will also be guided by the present level of understanding of individual subjects, in proportion to the growth of the supporting knowledge and specialist terminology.
Instead of growing a few thick branches, the knowledge tree will grow twigs in all possible directions while still adding bulk to the trunk and main boughs.
Incremental learning is inherently incapable of producing medical experts who have never heard of the Kuiper Belt , or astronomers who have no idea what constitutes a basic healthy diet.
SuperMemo helps you prioritize the acquisition of knowledge in various fields. It also helps you fine-tune the balance between specialization and general knowledge.
See also how SuperMemo prevents tunnel vision. The key to creativity is an association of remote ideas.
By studying multiple subjects in unpredictable order, you will increase your power to associate ideas. This will immensely improve your creativity.
Incremental reading may be compared to brainstorming with yourself. SuperMemo will throw at you various articles, paragraphs, statements and questions in a most unexpected order.
In the long run, the greatest creative advantage comes from knowledge permanently stored in your memory as opposed to knowledge that requires Google.
It is only a matter of creative effort and invested time before different pieces of knowledge can be associated to form new quality. This will also provide your brain with an entertaining form of mental training that will be highly appreciated in all forms of professions based on intellectual performance.
With incremental mail processing, it is also possible to mesh your learning, creative writing , and creative problem solving with a creative mail exchange with other people.
This may appear helpful in collective problem solving or in complex projects when you need to strike a balance between focused individual work and pulling the team brains together.
This process is called incremental brainstorming. Incremental brainstorming is slower, but it does not need synchronization circadian rhythm, time zones, motivation, etc.
Incremental brainstorming will never replace face-to-face interactive collaboration, however, it has many advantages associated with incremental learning creativity, prioritization , attention , meticulousness , long-term viability, etc.
It may provide an excellent knowledge-based supplement, or be your best creative collaboration tool when working at a distance esp.
The creative process is unpredictable, and when you hit your best ideas when the rest of the team is asleep, it makes a good sense to strike the iron while hot: Contradiction and chaos in your learning material comes from bad sources, from errors, from disagreements in science, or from the fact that you start the process from importing a set of unrelated or even chaotic articles describing a studied complex problem.
If your learning material contains contradictory information, your brain will quickly alert you to this fact. In classical learning, you would often relearn new facts that would contradict earlier learned facts.
Then you would relearn the older version again and this wasteful cycle might repeat more than once. In SuperMemo, the same process can take place; however, there will be two mechanisms that will turn chaos and contradiction into a self-limiting condition.
The first mechanism relies on high retention of knowledge in SuperMemo that will often make you instantaneously spot the contradiction: I have already learned this fact and the answer was different!
The second mechanism is the convergence of contradictory material in time. If you, for example, learn two different answers to What is the size of human population?
Once you relearn it the new way, you will provide a wrong answer to the other question. Inter-repetition intervals for these two contradictory items will get shorter with each relearning cycle.
The repetitions of contradictory items converge in time. Sooner or later, the red alert will be raised by your brain.
You will quickly resolve the difference and delete one of the items. Similar process will affect hazy or incompletely specified information.
Your knowledge will grow in consistency with time. In scientific research, acquiring engineering knowledge, studying a narrow topic of interest, etc.
By introducing the chaos of new research into SuperMemo, you will gradually locate contradictions and strive at building better and more consistent models in your memory.
Incremental reading stochastically juxtaposes pieces of information coming from various sources and uses the associative qualities of human memory to emphasize and then resolve contradiction.
You will quickly lean towards theories that are better supported by research findings. Those supported poorly will be less firm and will often cause recall problems.
Naturally, it may happen that you wish to learn contradictory statements too. For example, the opinions of dissenting scientists.
In those cases, SuperMemo will help you emphasize the need of rich context. You will label individual statements with their proponent names or with the school of thought labels.
Observers and new users of SuperMemo believe that complexity of incremental reading must make it stressful. Some report that even reading about incremental learning is stressful.
However, even though complexity always leads to a degree of stress or confusion, in the long-term, the opposite is true: SuperMemo helps you combat stress.
Stressless learning is one of the greatest advantages of incremental learning. All the advantages listed in this section contribute to the sense of fun and relaxation.
However, SuperMemo's ability to combat information overload might be the chief factor. Conversely, low stress levels have a miraculous impact on the effectiveness of learning.
Not everyone is stressed with information overload. There is a precondition for experiencing stress of having too much to read or too much to learn: This precondition is met in a great proportion of the general population according to a number of studies, and is actually less likely in younger individuals, including students, who are shielded from stress by their less crystallized motivation for learning.
The term Information Fatigue Syndrome has been coined recently to refer to stress coming from problems with managing overwhelming information.
Some consequences of IFS listed by Dr. David Lewis, a British psychologist, include: The information era tends to overwhelm us with the amount of information we feel compelled to process.
Incremental reading does not require all-or-nothing choices on articles to read. All-or-nothing choices are stressful! Can I afford to skip this article?
For months I haven't had time to read this article! SuperMemo helps you prioritize and skip articles partially by decision or opaquely i.
Reading of articles may be delayed opaquely, i. In incremental reading, instead of hesitating or procrastinating, you simply prioritize.
If you happen to open a dozen of tabs in your web browser, you will often be stressed about the optimum course of action.
You might be late for sleep, or late for work, and yet you do not want to lose the information. You will encounter the imported material as soon as your learning time allocations permit.
Similarly, you can clear your 1, pieces mail Inbox in a few hours with all pieces of mail well prioritized and scheduled for review.
Once you know you can rely on SuperMemo in presenting review material for you, you can eliminate the stress and anxiety related to having too much to study or too much to read.
You will never manage to read or learn all that you would hope for, but you will at least not lose sleep over planning and scheduling.
SuperMemo is a promise of the best use of your potential. With this conviction, you can devote all your energy to comprehension, analysis and retention of the learned material.
SuperMemo helps you take away a big deal of information overload stress. In a typical IFS stress therapy, you will see that scrupulous notes, ordering one's desk, planning one's work, keeping a calendar of appointments, etc.
SuperMemo does exactly the same: SuperMemo eliminates disorder and the ensuing uncertainty that often characterizes wild searches for information on the net.
Human brain has an in-built limit on the attention span. We all get bored with things. This is particularly visible in kids.
Limited attention helps maximize the learning input. This is why most toys have a short lifespan, and other kids' toys seem always more interesting.
The same is true of reading. Even the best articles can become taxing if they get too long. Millions of people do a daily channel zapping on TV.
This absurd activity is driven precisely by the craving for dense action and information variety. A gripping movie goes "too slow" for a typical channel zapper.
This is why he or she prefers to watch three movies at the same time even though the coherence of the plot of each will suffer. Incremental learning is a perfect remedy to the limited attention span.
Even a single unlucky paragraph in an article may greatly reduce your enthusiasm for reading. If you stumble against a few frustrating paragraphs, you may gradually develop a dislike of reading a particular article.
You may even become fed up with reading for the entire evening. In incremental reading, once you sense any sign of boredom or distraction, you can jump to the next article with mostly positive side effects expressed mainly in better memories produced by spaced learning.
Unlike in channel zapping, you won't miss any information. Just the opposite, you will maximize attention per paragraph. Your attention to the same piece of information may depend on your mood, amount of prior reading, today's interest that may depend on the piece of news you heard on the morning radio, etc.
With incremental reading, you can fit your best attention to each individual piece of reading. You can change the approach depending on your circadian status i.
You can deprioritize articles that undermine attention. You can split intimidating articles into more manageable portions.
The boost in attention is one of the main reasons why incremental reading is more fun than ordinary reading.
Everything we learn must be reviewed from time to time in order to be remembered. If you read an article in intervals , you already begin the consolidation of memory which may save you lots of time.
In traditional reading, you would need to read the whole article, and then to review the article later several times.
With earlier releases of SuperMemo, you would need to read the whole article, and then only review the most important parts of the article in SuperMemo at intervals determined by the program.
Now you can begin the consolidation-review cycle already during reading! Incremental reading combines the process of extracting pieces of valuable knowledge with memory consolidation.
This pre-consolidation will often dramatically reduce the number of repetitions required before your material gets to be reviewed in long intervals of months and years.
By the time you convert parts of the material into clozes or question-answer items , you will already have it well-consolidated.
This consolidation will be based on solid context, a degree of redundancy that helps retention , and an easy-to-remember formulation based on cloze deletion.
Extracting pieces of information from a larger body of knowledge provides your items with all the relevant context. This slow process of jelling out knowledge produces an enhanced sense of meaning and applicability of individual pieces of information.
Semantically equivalent pieces of information may be consolidated in varying contexts adding additional angles to their associative power.
In other words, not only will you remember better. You will also be able to view the same information from different perspectives. You always have a long queue of articles to read, and there are always more articles to read than you can ever hope to remember.
In incremental reading, you can precisely determine the priority of each article, paragraph, sentence or question.
Evaluating articles and prioritizing them is difficult because you cannot do a good evaluation without actually reading a part of the article in question.
In incremental reading, you can read the introduction and then decide when to read the rest. If an article is extremely valuable or interesting, you can process it entirely at once.
Other articles can slowly scramble through the learning process. Yet others may ultimately be deleted. The prioritization will continue while you are reading the article.
If the evaluation of quality or content changes while reading, so will the reading-review schedule. Prioritization tools will ensure that important pieces of information will receive better processing.
This will maximize the value of your reading time. This will also reduce the impact of material overflow on retention. You will always remember the desired proportion of your top-priority material.
While the lesser priority material may suffer more from the overflow and be remembered less accurately. Priority of articles is not set in stone.
You can modify it manually while reading in proportion to the value you extract from a given article. The priority will also change automatically each time you generate article extracts.
It will change if you delay or advance scheduled reading. The priority of extracts is determined by the priority of articles.
The priority of questions and answers produced from individual sentences is determined by their parenting extracts. Multiple prioritization tools will help you effectively deal with massive changes in your learning focus.
With the prioritization tools you can always determine your learning focus in numbers! This is one of the most important things about incremental reading: Incremental readers can beat speed readers in the speed of reading!
This is true even for relative beginners with little or no speed-reading training. In speed-reading, you always need to worry about the comprehension level.
High comprehension is where speed-reading skills are vital. However, in incremental reading, you can quickly skim through less important portions of the text without worrying you will miss a detail.
The skimmed fragment will be scheduled for later review. You can optionally determine when the review will happen and at what priority low priority review may be delayed further, often automatically.
You can quickly jump from paragraph to paragraph, get the overall picture, mark fragments for later reading, mark fragments for detailed study, etc.
This speed-reading method, with a bit of training, is stress free. You will eliminate the greatest bottleneck of speed-reading: When you come back to the skimmed fragments in the future, they may have already become irrelevant or less important.
That is one of a savings in time generated by incremental reading. You always focus on top priority material and you spend little time worrying about things that are left for later reading.
Incremental reading is speed-reading without the loss of comprehension. Once you speed-read the entire article, you can slowly digest it again from the very beginning in the incremental reading process.
Needless to say, speed-reading is not a patch on incremental reading when it comes to long-term retention. Memories are always subject to forgetting.
Whatever valuable information you gather while reading may be forgotten at any time. Pieces that would be retained without SuperMemo e. Other pieces will allow you to never need to come back to the article in question again.
In conclusion, all knowledge that you need in the long-run, should be best acquired via incremental reading.
Traditional reading can still be used for entertainment, temporary knowledge e. This is not to say that speed-reading skills are not useful in incremental reading.
If you are already a solid speed-reader, you can add to your speed and comprehension with the help of incremental reading.
In the process, you will hone your skills further and become even a faster reader. Cloze deletion is the fastest tool for converting texts into items.
In addition to massive imports, you can introduce your own rough notes into SuperMemo and later gradually convert them into well-structured knowledge.
Less important material may remain unstructured and, as such, less well-remembered. You will see how passive notes gradually fade in your memory and how their individual components will need to be reinforced by formulating specific well-structured items.
You will make such reinforcement decisions on the one-by-one basis depending on the importance of the fading material and the degree of recall problems.
Naturally, due to a typical learning overflow, you will always neglect some portions of the material. This is how you will gain additional speed understood as the time invested per item.
You will generate items faster, re-formulate them with greater ease, and save additional time by neglecting less important material. This is prioritization via formulation.
Less important material will remain in a less processed and messier state characterized by lower retention. With well-prioritized stream of information, you are served knowledge in smaller chunks.
This makes it possible to truly focus on most important pieces and discover things that would never get noticed in the mass of voluminous learning.
Good attention brings meticulousness and creative discovery. In other words, this is a marriage of prioritization , attention , and creativity advantages with a new twist: With massive incremental reading, you will hone a set of skills that are vital for efficient learning.
By repeating the same procedures over and over again, day in and day out, over the months and years, you will become a master of processing and retaining knowledge!
If you want things well done, do them often. Here are some example of skills that will get a boost and change your learning:. Once your collection grows rich in materials from various domains, you can use it before you use Google to search for information about a subject within the material that you already want to learn.
The search results will not be as rich, but they will be far more focused on the areas of your interest.
Once you become proficient with SuperMemo you can use it as an all-encompasing archive of all your media files.
Those files do not need to be part of the learning process, however, you can combine archiving functions with the incremental process e.
SuperMemo may be a great way to get rid of those dusty paper documents, tape recorder cassettes, CDs, photo albums, school notebooks, etc.
You can archive this in dedicated folders on your computer and import it all to SuperMemo. Incremental processing of archive has many advantages.
For example, while annotating family pictures from two centuries ago, you can fill in the gaps in information by simple face recognition that may rely on a degree of learning or creative juxtaposition of photographs from different sources in close intervals.
Incremental audio can also convert your jukebox SuperMemo into a stream of music with a maximized fun factor. There are millions of ways of sorting tracks on your media player device, by filename, by date, by annotation, by priority, by recent viewing This is because the quality of your experience when processing music or photos is based on the same forgetting mechanisms that affect learning.
You want to see or listen to some things more often than others, but not too often. Forgetting is the key to experiencing music or imagery or videos again and again with a heightened degree of fun, pleasure and, last but not least, learning.
The sense of productivity might be one of the most satisfying emotions. This is why incremental learning should be highly enjoyable.
This only magnifies its powers. To experience the elation of incremental learning, you may need a few months of focused practice.
You will first have to start with the basic tools and techniques. Then you will need to master knowledge representation skills.
Finally, you will need a couple of months of heavy-load incremental learning to perfect the details and develop your own "incremental learning philosophy".
You will also need to grow your collection as size matters for the fun of learning. Last but not least, incremental learning requires good language skills, some touch-typing skills, and patience SuperMemo will often want you to go against your own intuition.
Although the material is originally imported from electronic sources, it always needs to be molded, shortened, provided with context clues, restructured for wording and grammar, etc.
The skills involved are not trivial and require practice. Those who can compare the classic SuperMemo with incremental learning will testify that incremental learning is by far more fun.
In contrast to classic SuperMemo, where you focus on the review of the old material, incremental reading interweaves the old with the new.
Novelty adds to the fun and efficiency of learning. Incremental learning is by far more challenging and colorful than typical repetitions. In addition to review and reading, you can import rich graphics, audio and video to spice up your learning process.
In the end, you risk becoming seriously addicted to incremental learning. The statement " I do not read books " should no longer be considered in a negative light!
As long as you keep incremental learning in rational check, it will benefit you and others around you. Most of disadvantages of incremental learning come from factors that are a disadvantage in nearly all human pursuits: However, there are also disadvantages that come from the fact that incremental learning is not for everyone.
Poor selection of knowledge may result in wasting time on low-quality learning. Moreover, incremental learning may lead to frustration, stress, addiction, compulsive use, and other undesirable effects on user's psychology.
Incremental learning is powerful. We believe it might spell a revolution in learning. Its present incarnation will reach only a small fraction of society.
A frequent reservation voiced by skeptical observers is that dismembering texts into little units will result in an inevitable loss of the ability to see things from a distance in their entirety.
Does incremental learning produce a loss of the big picture? What the skeptics fail to appreciate is the power of spaced repetition that stands behind SuperMemo.
The SuperMemo method ensures high retention of once-mastered knowledge. This means that there is minimum disintegration of the coherence of knowledge once it is understood and well modeled in student's mind.
The main advantage of SuperMemo is that you convert lots of disparate pieces of information into a solid model of reality that lives in your memory.
All these pieces can be dispersed randomly in your collection like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, however, they fit into a coherent entirety that stays firmly intact in your mind.
In other words, incremental learning is reductionist at the level of knowledge processing, but is holistic at the level of memories stored in your brain.
The big picture worry comes from the fact that in traditional education, students rely heavily on their short-term memory. They cram a single subject intensely before an exam only to forget most of that knowledge in the following months unless the subject is reviewed in later courses.
It is true that short-term memory can act as a glue that holds the big picture in memory. However, it is the short-term memory and the weakest long-term memories that are gone first.
With that in mind, it is only natural that you might worry that if you start intermingling more than a few courses, you will end up with chaos and confusion.
It is not the case with incremental learning. New memories, once established, are gradually reinforced to permanently enter the long-term storage.
All incremental learning does is to help you focus on a small portion of the material at any given moment.
In traditional unspaced education, the big picture is maintained with the glue of short-term memories. As such it is volatile, and subject to forgetting.
In incremental learning, the big picture has a lasting value! Worrying about the big picture in incremental reading is as if you worried that you might forget the structure of your family just because you meet too many members at the same time at a big family occasion, or that you might forget your name when focusing too much on spelling its individual letters.
Once the big picture resides in your long-term memory, you can play with details to your heart's content. Today, tomorrow, or in a couple of years.
Incremental learning is just a few years old. For example, incremental reading was introduced in The essential concept of the priority queue was introduced only in Without the priority queue, massive learning may lead to massive chaos.
Incremental video was born in So you won't find users with 20 years of experience. Despite the young age of incremental learning, it is easy to theorize about its power.
This is because learning incrementally isn't much different in its ultimate effect as other forms of learning e. For that reason, the results will be comparable.
The main difference is that you will get to the levels of higher knowledge much faster assuming sufficient skills. This way, someone with a few months of intense incremental learning, may get the knowledge and act not much different than a university graduate.
Naturally, incremental learning will not substitute for laboratory practice, problem solving, discussions with friends, and professors, etc.
So there will be differences. You can then ask: If you hope that incremental reading will make you a universally knowledgeable and smart, you are wrong.
Human knowledge is vast enough for a 2-year-old to know things that a PhD does not know esp. Incremental reading is more likely to be less focused and more general.
At the university, you may learn extensively on a specific subject, while in incremental reading you are more likely to stray to multiple related areas depending on your interests and the encountered gaps in knowledge.
Your priorities will reflect your individual profile and your knowledge may be far more customized to your own needs and passions. All in all, an incremental reader will not differ much from a well-learned person.
The main difference may come in personality because only a few have the mental characteristics needed to get interested and then sustain the incremental reading process.
Thus incremental readers may appear more knowledgeable just because of their natural curiosity or even obsession with knowledge.
This quest for general knowledge may result in short moments of amazement with the gaps in knowledge exhibited by other people.
In September , scientists announced that Voyager 1 entered the interstellar medium. A panel of high-IQ journalists on a respected news channel discussed that historic moment.
One of the journalists mentioned that Voyager 1 was launched in the s and has now left the solar system. The other journalists nodded. This is where an obsessive incremental reader may stumble and realize he or she is indeed a bit different.
It is not how others perceive you that matters, but how you change your thinking and the ability to solve problems. In most cases, few people in your surroundings care about your problems and your goals.
The knowledge you obtain for those goals will be of little interest to others beyond a narrow circle of close friends. If you ever attempt to show off at parties, you will rather be politely dismissed as an annoyance.
Being a smart aleck is universally perceived in a negative light. If you shine with your knowledge in a relevant context i.
We all love the doctor that can provide an accurate diagnosis at a glance and instantly come up with a solution to your health problem.
However, chances are rather slim that you will be able to show off your specialist knowledge at a party unless it is a professional party of your colleagues in the field.
The greatest advantage of incremental reading may show in the areas of general knowledge. These are the areas that most of people neglect due to a simple lack of time and lack of sufficient pressure or motivation.
Astudent may need to study for his geography course, a medical researcher may need to read dozens of papers, but they both may have too little time or need to refresh the ABC of physics that might otherwise be useful in understanding things that happen around them.
An obsessive incremental reader might therefore reach a sort of higher level of awareness. If you hear about a chaffinch for the first time in your life, you might likely say " I have never seen that bird ".
However, you might then be amazed if you see the bird a few times in the course of the following week. With a narrow focus, few people are able to point to the galaxies that are likely to collide with the Milky Way.
Knowledge and understanding of similar facts and processes may seem to have little application to daily activities, however, it does seem to change how people view their place in the universe.
Knowledge makes you see things that others do not see. That should be sufficient reward. As explained in Roots of Genius and Creativity: Smart and dumb learning , smart learning will help you get smarter.
However, bad learning practices can result in a monumental waste of time. SuperMemo helps you eliminate the problem of forgetting.
As such, it can also help you remember time-wasting garbage. The main rule of smart learning is: Learn things that change your life. Learning things that help you change the life of others.
Rules are better than facts. You can employ probability or statistical formulas in dozens of contexts. If you memorize phone numbers, it won't make you much smarter.
We believe that incremental learning is the acme of learning in However, it can also make you dumber. If you take on heavy learning, you are bound to suffer from serious memory interference.
This means that you will also forget much faster, esp. Instead of looking smarter, to the outside world, you might appear more forgetful and even absent-minded.
You might forget events, promises, encounters, jokes, movies, and all those little memory things that we take for granted.
Incidentally, this forgetfulness is also produced by Facebook , Twitter , and the like. In this chaotic modern world, we hardly ever have time to stop and ponder important things.
These days you can buy a shower cabin or a sauna with speakers built in. It's a matter of time before you can engage into a conversation with your toilet.
Perhaps you already chat with your Facebook friends while sitting on the toilet? This means that the last preserves of peaceful thinking and creativity are in danger of being swamped with information overload.
This makes us smarter in a different way. However, without your rational intervention, it may work against your long-term success.
The same is true about incremental learning, you must stay vigilant and learn only things that are highly relevant and applicable to your goals and your position in society.
Turn off your phone in the night, leave your MP3 player at home when you go for a jogging, and keep your incremental reading in check and order.
Incremental learning helps you quantify your knowledge. If you do incremental learning, this might be your most distinguishing feature: You better understand the limitations of human memory and its value!
Not all knowledge is of great value. Memorizing all tributaries of Amazon make take precious time from other areas of learning.
Unless you are an expert on Amazon , rain forest , geography, Indian tribes or related areas, you would rather not want to begin your incremental learning experience from that Amazon exercise.
Your learning efforts must be based on high applicability of newly acquired skills and knowledge. If you memorize the whole phone book, your problem solving ability will increase only slightly mostly through the beneficial effect of memory training on the health of your brain.
On the other hand, a simple formula for expected payoff may affect all decisions you make in problem solving and in life in general.
It can, for example, save you years of wasted investment in lottery tickets. Millions of people are enticed with huge lottery jackpots, yet they would never agree to give up their whole income for life in order to get it back at retirement in one-off payment, which is a frequent probabilistic payoff equivalent of taking part in lotteries.
Using the terminology defined above, you will find most benefit in mastering and understanding highly abstract rules of logical thinking and decision making.
To accomplish smart learning, you will need to constantly pay utmost attention to what material you decide to study.
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After getting my first one, my girlfriend decided she wanted one as well! Seeing is this is the newer model with newer materials, that was a no-brainer!
To start, the tablet is 10 inches which is great for watching movies, using pinterest, or any other thing that you might be doing that you want a big screen on!
The video and screen quality are both very good for a tablet in this price! I can generally go a few days on a single charge! Some other notable features are the fact that this tablet is unlocked and can be used to make phone calls if you use a sim card.
You can finally leave your phone at home! The days of carrying both a phone and a tablet are over!
Also, the materials of the tablet are very sleek and professional looking! All in all, this is a great tablet that is really in a league of its own as far as 10 inch tablets go.
As cool as the specifics sound: First of all, picture an ipad, but instead metalic parts its an lcd screen embedded into a plastic that takes the shape of an ipad.
This cheap qualiy definitely makes this devixe feel like it could snap in half or pop the lcd screen right out of the mount.
Turning on the device, the first distasteful aspect is the resolution. The first thing i tested was the 13MP rear camera - absolute garabage compared to the 12MP rear camera of the ipad air 2.
This camera looks like a 10 dollar webcam, unable to capture light nor focus. Still having hope, i did my best to adjust the picture quality without having a screen resolution option in the device settings.
I even went into the developer mode settings and still no way to correct the device resolution. Lastly, what threw this product into the trash was the absolute lack of gpu.
I didnt think it would be a big deal but this thing couldnt run a single app that demanded graphics. Unless you plan on using this as a phone or ebook reading, id avoid this product.
The audio sounds like a radio that went underwater at one point and dried out. This product is clearly the creature under the bed wishing it was something pretty.
A friend of mine needed a tablet where she could have internet access. We purchased this product so she can use a monthly data card to be online.
We went to Verizon to buy a data card only to find out the tablet had 2 IMEI numbers that were not compatible. All 3 stores stated it was an unlocked tablet but was not compatible for the data cards.
We even tried Cricket and Straight Talk!
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